(1748-1832) of Greenwood, Cox & Co. (later Cox & Co.),
bankers and army agents.
Mezzotint of the portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence (1828).
What was an 'army agent'?
'Cox & Co. were commonly called the 'Bankers of the British Army' but such a designation conveys a very imperfect impression of their position, and of the numerous and varied functions which their business comprised. The administration and accountability of the public emoluments, and personal incomes of some five thousand officers scattered over all parts of the Globe, was only one, and by no means the most important of the services imposed upon the great house in Craig's Court.
They were not only bankers, but the official brokers so to say for the sale and purchase of Military Commissions, the recognised intermediaries for effecting regimental exchanges and transfers; and the executive agents for the onerous and responsible work involved in the clothing and equipment of the army.
Such duties - many of them of a peculiarly delicate character - necessarily kept them in continuous communication with all departments of the Government connected with the military service, from the Commander in Chief and the secretary at War, down to Captains of Companies and regimental quarter masters, and at the same time brought them into intimate personal relations with all their clients.
The boy gazetted to his first commission, the field officer aspiring to the command of his regiment, the veteran contemplating retirement, and the officer's widow claiming her poor pension, alike addressed themselves to Cox & Co. certain to find sound counsel, effectual help and kindly sympathy.
It need hardly be pointed out how much business experience and capacity, how complete a mastery of the regulations and practice governing the army, how strong a grasp of a vast variety of technical detail, and above all, how great a degree of unfailing tact in the intercourse with men of all ranks, classes and conditions, were indispensable for the efficient performance of such services.
Military officers, more especially in their earlier years, are not noted for the exercise of strict economy in their private expenditure, and when the imprudent or unwary subaltern after an unsuccessful attempt to retrieve his position by a desperate resort to Epsom Downs, or to money lenders, saw ruin staring him in the face, it was to Craig's Court that he instinctively bent his steps. There he was sure of an indulgent hearing, and of such material help as the case might admit of, and often when the strict exigencies of business compelled the firm to harden their hearts against the appeal, the generosity of an individual partner would come to the rescue, and by timely aid, accompanied perhaps by a paternal warning for the future, would thus save a young life from wreck.'
Quoted from family notes.
Cox & Co.
Richard Cox (1718-1803) of Aspenden Hall, Hertfordshire, who founded Cox & Co. in 1758. Portrait by Sir William Beechey.
Richard Cox was the son of Joshua Cox of Quarley Park and Grantley, near Andover, and Mary Greenwood, daughter of James Greenwood of Stapleton, Darrington (d 1712), father of William Greenwood (d 1727), Rector of Darfield, father of Francis Greenwood (d 1761), Rector of Higham Ferrers, father of Charles Greenwood (see below for details of descent). In other words, Richard Cox and Charles Greenwood's father, Francis, were first cousins, both being the grandsons of James Greenwood of Stapleton.
Caroline Cox, Lady Champneys (d 1791), daughter of Richard Cox, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. She married Sir Thomas Champneys, 1st Bt. of Orchardleigh House, Frome, Somerset. The baronetcy became extinct in 1839.
See here for a history of the firm
The original offices of Cox & Co. were in Albermarle Street. The firm moved to Craig's Court in 1765 and remained there until 1888, although not in the same building. They then seem to have moved to Charing Cross and to have occupied various buildings in that area. In 1922 Cox & Co., who by then had been long-established as 'bankers to the British Army', merged with Henry S. King & Co. to become Cox's & King's and moved into newly-built head offices at 6 Pall Mall. In 1923 the banking side of the business was taken over by Lloyd's Bank, now Lloyds Banking Group (there is still a branch/office of Cox's & King's at 7 Pall Mall, London SW1), while the rest became Cox & Kings, the travel company, which still exists today.
Over time the firm had been Richard Cox (1758-1765), Cox & Drummond (1765-1772), Cox & Mair (1772-1779), Cox, Mair & Cox (1779-1783), Cox, Cox & Greenwood (1783-1790), Cox & Greenwood (1791-1801), Cox, Greenwood & Cox (1801-1803), Greenwood & Cox (1803-1806), Greenwood, Cox & Co. (1806-1832), Cox, Hammersley & Co. (1833-1834) and Cox & Co. (1833-1922).
Cox & Co. were also bankers to members of the royal family. It is related that when Frederick, Duke of York (1763-1827) introduced Charles Greenwood, a partner of the firm, to his father, George III, as "Mr. Greenwood, the gentleman who keeps my money.", the army agent ventured to remark "I think it is rather his Royal Highness who keeps my money.", a rejoinder which greatly delighted the old King - "Do you hear that? Frederick do you hear that? You are the gentleman who keeps Mr. Greenwood's money."
A poem which appeared in the 'B.E.F. Times' (British Expeditionary Force) in March 1917 goes as follows:
'Kindly manager of Cox,
I am sadly on the rocks,
For a time my warring ceases,
My patella is in pieces;
Though in hospital I lie,
I am not about to die;
Therefore let me overdraw
Just a very little more.
If you stick to your red tape
I must go without my grape,
And my life must sadly fret
With a cheaper cigarette,
So pray be not hard upon
A poor dejected subaltern.
This is all I have to say,
The alleged response from Cox's was:
'Sir, the kindly heart of Cox
Cannot leave you on the rocks,
And he could not sleep in bed
Thinking you were underfed;
So if you will let us know
Just how far you want to go,
Your request will not be in vain,
Written from your bed of pain,
We will make but one request -
Keep this locked within your breast,
For if others know, they'll say,
"Good old Cox is sure to pay
Only take him the right way.'"
Extract from A characteristic-sketch of Charles Greenwood, Boulogne, 1826
Among mankind, how few are known
Who prize the worth that's not their own
Who dare be just to others too,
And give to merit, merit's due."
In the various and multiplied annals of public or private Characters, few will be found to merit a greater share of respect and esteem than the individual whose history and conduct are about to be presented, under the strictest garb of Truth, to the scrutiny of candid, or unjust, generous or illiberal readers, as Chance may direct. "Male facere qui vult, nusquam non causam invenit.
It is an admitted Aphorism, deduced from and confirmed by the best test of Experience, that,"No man ever yet ascended from humble life, without the aid of family-connection, to a distinguished influence under a monarchical Government, unless blessed with transplendent talents, or singular virtues; or - raised by unblushing impudence, low-minded servility, - and a perfect aptitude to the atrocious subtleties of the detested and sycophantic art of Dissimulation." - Every individual who contemplates mankind with calm philosophy, - or, who traces, with a microscopic eye, the progress of his Cotemporaries to distinction, and who skilfully and ingenuously analizes the characteristic-features of All, who have attained an unexpected elevation in the various governments of Europe, will readily subscribe to the accuracy of the preceding dogma; - All too, who have the happiness of ever having known the subject of this memoir will cordially admit, that qualities of the most amiable, most enviable, and most valuable nature have raised Mr. Greenwood to a degree of influence, and an extent of consideration which have, unhappily, drawn upon him unfounded asperities from malignant or mischievous writers, who have Vainly endeavoured to wound a reputation too firmly established on the Solid basis of intrinsic worth; - Singular, indeed, would that individual be, whose actions, virtues, or intentions, command the universal applause of mankind ; and, hence, the palpable Absurdity of supposing, that the strictest delineation of any meritorious character can escape the illiberal criticisms, ungenerous animadversions, or unfounded Sarcasms, of every reader! No such expectation is idly cherished; no such hope vainly formed; " Stultus nisi quod Ipse facit, Nit rectum put at." *
*"To weaker minds superior sense
Will seldom fail to give offence."
Mr. Greenwood is a native of Yorkshire, from whence he was sent for education to one of our public and learned Colleges; - possessing an extremely gentle temper, with an unusual steadiness of mind, and being blessed with talents susceptible of a high extent of improvement, the time passed at the University was applied to the real cultivation of his mind, and enabled him, at a very early period of life, to accept a confidential situation in a celebrated house of army agency in London, the circumstances of his father (who was a country gentleman of contracted means) rendering the exertion or exercise of his talents necessary to his future prosperity. - Placed, as a Youth, in the most wealthy, and one of the most dissipated cities in the universe, none of the manifold temptations or allurements of the Metropolis seem ever to have led him even to the threshold of dissipation! He has always appeared to possess, in a superior degree, that valuable gift of nature, which a French writer, thus appositely describes: - " C'est une qualite qu'on croit vulgaire, et qui est si rare; c'est une qualite non moins utile au gouvernement des Etats, qu'a la conduite de la vie, qui donne plus de tranquillite que de mouvement a lame, et qui donne aussi du bonheur, et de la gloire a ceux qui la possedent: C'est Le Bon Sens." - From the philanthropic friendship, and warm recommendations of Mr. Danby (Swinton-Park, Yorkshire) Mr. Greenwood obtained a desk in the house of army-agency of which he has been long the highly-respected chief. The present firm of Greenwood, Cox and Co. is as generally known, and as greatly esteemed, by the military and British-mercantile world, as the Bank of England; - its affairs have long been conducted with that degree of talent, punctuality, probity, and liberality, which could not fail to expand its celebrity to every quarter of the dominions of Great-Britain; and - if there exists An Individual, whose bare word would pass current for millions, that character is to met in Mr. Greenwood. - His private worth, and amiability can only be known or appreciated by those who have had the pleasure of moving in the same domestic or friendly circle; an acquaintance with his mother, at a very advanced period of her life, enables the writer of this memoir to assert, that Mr. Greenwood proved himself through life an excellent son, his venerable and highly enlightened parent having often extolled his endearing attentions, and filial affection to the greatest height of human praise! "Fundamentum est omnium virtutum pietas in parentes."
No man was ever more unassuming, or unobtrusive than Mr. Greenwood, and few men have bent their minds as completely to acts of disinterested kindness and practical philanthropy as he has done through a long and laborious career. - Had selfish feeling, or vain-glorious Ambition actuated Mr. Greenwood, there can be no doubt that this humane and generous individual might have retired from the confinement and drudgery of office-duties more than twenty years ago with "The Honor Of Knighthood," and a Fortune amply sufficient to gratify every want of Pride, and every wish of Sensuality! - Nor could the honor have been conferred upon any individual more worthy of royal favor, if official assiduity, and the highest degree of private virtue constitute a just claim to that distinction. Mr. Greenwood possesses a mind far superior to selfish indulgence or inglorious ease; possessing, as he justly merits, the confidence of a Prince, who has rendered himself "the Idol of the British-Army", by his devotion to its Comforts and Improvement, he feels the power of doing good, and continues to exert his talents, to serve all who require his assistance, or solicit his advice; the pleasing and prepossessing urbanity of his manners, and his quick penetration render any appeal to his judgment, or to his friendship equally satisfactory; his refusal of assistance always seems to proceed from a frank and real inability to grant that which he feels much inclined to confer, leaving an impression that he Participates in the disappointment or the chagrin he is compelled to excite, and in cases of Distress, the Noblest feelings of human-nature are easily and highly excited in him, nor can the sordid or selfish consideration of pecuniary sacrifice, or the cold and prudential suggestions of less noble or less elevated minds withdrawn him from the manly, kind, and independent exercise of that exalted philanthropy and benign generosity which Delight in averting misery from the miserable, and which seem never so truly Gratified as in acts of extraordinary Benevolence; - "Beneficium non eo, quod fit aut datur consistit, sed in ipso facientis aut dantis animo.
Among the earliest friends of Mr. Greenwood, as an army-agent, are to be enumerated the most distinguished officers in the British Army. - The Marquis Cornwallis, Sirs Ralph and Robert Abercrombie, Lord Lake, Sir William Meadows, Lord Hutchinson, Lord Cathcart, Sir John Moore, Lord William Bentinck , Sir John Sherbrook, Sir James Craig, Sir Thomas Hislop, Lord Hopetown, Lord Combermere, Sir John Craddock., Sir Thomas Picton, LJ. Huntley Sir Samuel Auchmuty, Sir John Doyle, Lord Anglesea, Lord Londonderry, Sir William Stewart, Sir A. Hope, Lord Hill, Lord Harris, Lord Cavan. Sir George Don, General Grosvenor, Sir George Walker, Sir James Leith, Sir Robert Brownrigg, Sir D. Dundas, Sir William Hutchinson, Sir Charles Grey, Sir Charles Stuart, the Marquis of Hastings, Sir B. Spencer, Lord Dalhousie, and The Immortal Prince Of Waterloo.
- In the list of junior, but not less brilliant, Generals, Many owe their opportunities of acquiring the high reputation and never-fading Laurels they have so nobly won, and now so justly wear, to the friendship of Mr. Greenwood!
Mr. Greenwood has never been considered, by military men, as the mere "pound-shilling and-pence-Agent" of the army; but as the trustworthy and confidential Friend of The Duke Of York, and the able advocate and judicious Counsellor of officers, whose want of family influence seemed to require an easy and unembarrassed medium of communication with the Commander-in-chief; and, such has ever been the fidelity, industry, and talent of that Gentleman, in promoting the professional views of the Many who have relied upon his exertions, that men of high rank and most distinguished services have made him the channel through which their requests, wishes, and Claims have been conveyed to Head-quarters, with a propriety and skill which have seldom failed to produce the desired effect! - Men of high minds and real talents never possess the self-sufficiency, forwardness, conceit, specious-presumption, or Voluble Egotism, which [too often] exalt very minor claimants to the meed of Merit! - A zealous officer felt assured, that Mr. Greenwood would do that real justice to his Claims which his own modesty might be tempted to conceal, for there is no task more repugnant to a noble spirit than that of sounding its own trumpet. It may easily be imagined that the manifold, and often oppugnant wishes, claims, and cases entrusted to his discretion and management, required a clear understanding and a comprehensive and well-regulated mind, far superior to the mere pecuniary transactions of an Army Agent.
A similarity of mind and manners has often been remarked between the Earl Of Liverpool and Mr. Greenwood, both seeming to delight in conferring practicable favors and to lament the necessity of declining inadmissible applications; the same conciliatory and philanthropic disposition is generally ascribed to the present Secretary to the Commander-in Chief, (Sir Herbert Taylor) which renders the easy access to him truly satisfactory to all ranks; and perhaps there never was a period of our history, in which all the Public Offices have been filled with equally amiable and equally highly-gifted Chiefs, as at the present moment. Lord Palmerston's liberal spirit towards Widows and Orphans has raised a monument of gratitude and well-merited fame "ere perennius"; the skill, punctuality, and judgment with which he transacts the business of the War-office, has long been, a just and general subject of popular praise, and it is but fair to say that His Lordship judiciously discriminates between mean parsimony and profligate prodigality, between the Dignity of a great and powerful Nation, and the pitiful economy of a narrow-minded, penny-wise ( Hume-like ) politician.
If Mr. Greenwood stood only as a common Army-Agent, his opportunities of rendering services to military men would be very circumscribed, and his history uninteresting beyond the pale of his employers; but, as the old, able, and confidential friend of A Prince and Commander-in-chief, a true and faithful sketch of his character and conduct can hardly fail to excite an interest in all who are connected with the British Army; and all who have the pleasure of knowing him will admit that his whole life and actions fully verify the assertion, that, 'Les mouvemen[t]s d'une ame magnanime sont plus estimables, plus nobles et plus glorieux que Ies trophees et les victoires."*
*"The movements of a magnanimous soul are more worthy, more noble and more glorious than trophies and victories."
Extract from family notes:
'The following letter bears equal testimony to Mr. Greenwood's unfailing kindness.
112, Park Street, 25th May, 1818
My dear Sir,
This is not to reach you till I am no more out of gratitude for the friendship and great kindness you so seasonably and so feelingly shewed me at the time I first lost my ever valued and much loved friend Mr. Cox, you have till this day been remembered in my will. But as it must be ever uncertain which of us would survive the other, I felt unspeakable gratification in sending you my token of regret during my lifetime and while I had the happiness of knowing you were alive to possess it. It consisted of two bank notes of £200 each enclosed in a note with no other words than "An old debt at length acquitted in part" written by myself, but in a feigned hand. I amused myself with the puzzle it would occasion you, and now only relieve you from it that I may have the satisfaction of dying without leaving the impression on your mind that I could be either ungrateful or forgetful. That you may ever be happy is the constant wish of your greatly obliged friend.
Diana Maria Dowdeswell
The note is endorsed 'Miss D. Dowdeswell 25 May 1818 sent to C.H. [Charles Hammersley (1782-1862), who succeeded Charles Greenwood as senior partner of Cox & Co.?] after Mr. G's death.''
The Banqueting Room, Brighton Pavilion
It was while on a visit at the Pavillion (The Royal Pavillion, Brighton) in January 1832, while playing a rubber of whist with the King, that he was suddenly taken ill, and died within a few hours in his eighty-fourth year.
The following letter from the Earl of Munster to Mr. Charles Hammersley is but one of the very gratifying tributes to Charles Greenwood's memory:
"My dear Sir,
I came home from the House of Lords being quite unable to sit out the debate after receiving the distressing intelligence Lord Erroll had brought from Brighton, and which I only learned just now. I have double reason to regret my excellent, lamented kind friend, not only for his qualities as a man, but from the circumstance of his being at Brighton on my account, being engaged in a most delicate discussion between the King and myself, and God only knows where I shall (I am sure the King will feel the like difficulty) find another in whom we shall both place the like confidence. But I would keep all these regrets to a later and more proper moment if it were not necessary that I should entreat you to secure for me some of my letters, and copies of others, and some unopened letters addressed to the King, which will be found, having been sent to Brighton within the last week. They consist of a rough copy of a letter to the King, three letters from myself, and two sealed letters addressed to the King, but which my kind and excellent friend had not presented. These two last (those unopened and addressed to the King) I wish you kindly to retain for the present, as I shall probably refer the King to you for one which Mr. Greenwood had approved (having found fault with the first) and which I hoped he would have presented if a fit opportunity offered. Hereafter I will open them both in your presence, and leave that corrected according to his wishes for you to keep. I want no answer as you must be truly miserable, but you must allow me to say that I owe more to poor Mr. Greenwood than I do to anyone else in existence, that I entreat besides my carriage being permitted to attend the outward pageant (sic) of the funeral, that I may be allowed personally to follow his remains to their last home, as no one does, or can, feel more unfeigned or heartfelt sorrow than myself.
Most truly yours,
Thursday evening, 8 o'clock."
The United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine, 1832, Part I:
'Jan. 25th. Suddenly, at the King's Palace, at Brighton, where be had the honour to be a visitor, at an advanced age, Charles Greenwood, Esq. the eminent and estimable head of the house of Greenwood, Cox, and Co., of Craig's-Court. The long and intimate connection of the late Mr. Greenwood with the Army, which held his character and will hold his memory in the highest respect, claims at our hands a more extended notice of his career, which we shall take steps to supply.'
Extract from family notes:
'Mr. Greenwood was believed to have amassed a very large fortune, as indeed he had done, but his contributions to impecunious Royalty, the lavish hospitality which the necessities of his peculiar position entailed upon him, his generosity towards all who claimed his help, and above all the great sacrifices he made to avert the fall of his brother-in-law's bank, ultimately so reduced his means that his nephew Charles Hammersley - who had been led to expect a large inheritance, found himself a loser of £25,000 by having accepted the trust bequeathed to him under Mr. Greenwood's will as sole Executor and Residuary Legatee.'
In 1811 the Duke of York (1763-1827) assigned the lease granted to him by his father, George III, of St. James' Park and Green Park to Charles Greenwood, Richard Cox and Charles Hammersley. In 1824 the Duke of York assigned the lease of part of St. James' Palace (known as 'Stable Yard') granted to him by George IV, being the site on which York House (later called Lancaster House, the most valuable house in London - and therefore the world) was built to Charles Greenwood, Richard Cox and Charles Hammersley. After the Duke's death an Act of Parliament was passed in 1841 to redeem the lease so that York House could be sold to the Duke of Sutherland and the two parks set up as Royal Parks. Pity they weren't able to hang on to it!
Green Park, St. James's Park and Buckingham Palace section of "Improved map of London for 1833, from Actual Survey. Engraved by W. Schmollinger, 27 Goswell Terrace".
Lancaster House interior.
The Greenwood family of Stapleton
The arms of Greenwood of Stapleton from Dugdale's Visitation of Yorkshire:
Sable, a chevron ermine between three saltires or, a mullet for difference.
These arms confirm that the Greenwoods of Stapleton were a branch of a branch of the Greenwoods of Greenwood Lee, since the arms of the latter family (being the original undifferenced arms) are sable a chevron ermine between three saltires argent (as opposed to or). So a younger son of the family of Greenwood of Greenwood Lee clearly differenced his arms by changing the saltires from argent (silver) to or (gold), then a younger son of that branch subsequently differenced his arms by adding the mullet (star).
It would appear that the man who differenced the arms of Greenwood of Greenwood Lee by changing the tincture of the saltires from argent to or was James Greenwood, see below, apparently a younger brother of the Greenwoods of Greenwood Lee, who married Elizabeth, daughter of unknown of Chape(l)lholme. It would presumably have been his second son, John Greenwood of Wrenthorp (d 1635), see below, who added the mullet.
From Dugdale's Visitation of Yorkshire:
James Greenwood, a younger brother of the Greenwoods of Greenwood Lee (descended from Wyomarus de Greenwode of Greenwode Lee, living 1154, provisioner to the Empress Maud), m Elizabeth, daughter of unknown of Chape(l)lholme, and had issue;
John Greenwood of Wrenthorp juxta Wakefield (bur. Wakefield 13 Nov 1635) m Anne Marsh(e) of Thornhill and had issue;
James Greenwood (aged 9 in 1612) of Stapleton, Darrington m (1) Sarah Burdet of Mor(e)grange (Moor Grange) and (2) Mary Bellhouse, daughter of Francis Bellhouse of Newsome, Town Clerk of Leeds, and had issue by (2);
James Greenwood of Stapleton (which estate he sold), afterwards of York, ob. 1712, m Frances, daughter of William Farrar of Ewood (d 1684 and buried in Darrington Church), and had issue;
Rev. William Greenwood (d 1727), Rector of Darfield, m Sarah, daughter of Robert Wainwright of Middlewood Hall.
According to 'Northamptonshire and Rutland Clergy' (H. I. Longden, 'Northamptonshire and Rutland Clergy from 1500', 15 vols., Northampton, 1938-43) they had issue Rev. Francis Greenwood (d 15 June 1761), Rector of Higham Ferrers, who (according to my family records) m Ann(e) Harrington (b 1717 d 1813) of Lavenham, Suffolk, (who m, secondly, Rev. Thomas Fane Charles Graham (d 1782), Rector of South Church, Essex, brother of Sir William Graham, Bart. (d 1774), of Esk) who had issue; Charles Greenwood (1748-1832), whose sister, Anne (d 1822), married Thomas Hammersley (1747-1812).
Anne Greenwood was the heir of her brother, who did not marry, and she therefore became the heraldic heiress of her father and entitled to pass the arms of Greenwood of Stapleton to her descendants as a quartering. These arms are sable, a chevron ermine between three saltires or, a mullet for difference (for Greenwood of Stapleton); an escutcheon of pretence azure, on a chevron or between three church bells argent, as many eagles displayed [gules? - see Burkes 'General Armory' under 'Belhouse'] (for Bellhouse), per Dugdales Visitation of Yorkshire under 'Greenwood of Stapleton'). Thoresby's history of Leeds, Eng., published 1715, gives the date of the arms of Wyomarus de Greenwode as 1154 (this is taken from Thoresby's 'Ducatus Leodensis'), so the arms are very ancient, indeed, amongst the earliest in the country.
Stapleton Park, Darrington, nr. Pontefract, Yorkshire. Seat of James Greenwood, great-grandfather of Charles Greenwood (1748-1832). This picture is of the building at a later date and it had probably been substantially re-built since James Greenwood's time. James Greenwood sold the property in 1702 to a Samuel Walker of York.
Greenwood Lee is about a mile NW of Heptonstall and was owned by the family from the mid-1100s until 1642.
Greenwood Lee, Heptonstall, Yorkshire.
Greenwood Lee - a modern photo.
According to my family notes this is Middlewood Hall, Hereford, which presumably corresponds with Middlewood House, Clifford, nr. Hay-on-Wye, Hereford. But I think this may be an error since there is a Middlewood Hall in Darfield (Middlewood Hall, Doncaster Rd, Darfield, Barnsley).
Middlewood Hall, Darfield. The house seems to have passed from the Wainwrights to a family called Walker in 1761 and in 1804 was sold to Hon. Henry Saville, only surviving brother of the Earl of Mexborough. Subsequently:
1828 John Savile, Earl of Mexborough inherited it
1830 Daniel Maude bought the estate
1838 George Skilbeck Maude inherited from his father Daniel but he died age 26 in 1844
1845 Thomas Taylor, of a family of Linen Manufacturers of Barnsley bought the estate
1870 Francis Howard Taylor inherited it
1898 Charles Howard Taylor inherited it
1925 Ronald Howard H Taylor inherited it
1962 Phyllis L H Taylor inherited it
1970 Mr & Mrs Wainwright (professional photographers) bought it
1980 Rafahart Ltd, developers bought the Hall and converted it to private dwellings
Farrar of Ewood Hall
See here and here for more on the family.
Descent of Frances Farrar from Charlemagne:
Charlemagne (b. 2 Apr 747 d. 28 Jan 813), Holy Roman Emperor m Hildegarde of Vinzgau (b. 758 d. 30 Apr 783) and had issue;
Pepin (d. 8 Jul 810), King of Italy, m Bertha of Toulouse and had issue;
Bernard (b. 799 d. 818), King of Italy m Cunigunde (b. 797) and had issue;
Pepin (b. 817 d. after 840), Count of Peronne, m unknown and had issue;
Herbert I de Vermandois (b. 840 d. 902) m Bertha de Morvois and had issue;
Beatrix de Vermandois (d. after Mar 931) m Robert I (b. 866 d. 15 Jun 923), King of France, and had issue;
Hugh 'Magnus' (b. about 895 d. 16 Jun 956) m Hedwig (d. after 965) and had issue;
Hugh Capet (b. 941 d. 24 Oct 996), King of France m Adelaide of Aquitaine (b. 950) and had issue;
Robert II (b. 27 Mar 972 d. 20 Jul 1031), King of France, m Constance of Arles (b. about 986 d. 25 Jul 1032) and had issue;
Henry I (b. 1006 d. 4 Aug 1060), King of France, m Anne of Kiev (b. about 1023 d. After 1075) and had issue;
Hugh (b. 1057 d. 18 Oct 1101/2), Count of Vermandois, m Adelaide de Vermandois (b. about 1062 d. 1120/1124) and had issue;
Isabel de Vermandois (d. 1131) m William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, and had issue;
Ada de Warenne m Henry (d. 1152), Earl of Huntingdon, son of David I, (d. 1153), King of Scots, and had issue;
David (d. 1219), Earl of Huntingdon, m Matilda (d. 1233), daughter of Hugh de Kevelioc (d. 1181), Earl of Chester (by Bertrade, daughter of Simon, Count of Evreux), son of Ranulph de Gernon (d. 1153), Earl of Chester (by Maud, daughter of Robert Fitzroy of Caen (d. 1189), Earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I), and had issue;
Ada m Sir Henry de Hastings (d. 1250) and had issue;
Sir Henry de Hastings (d. 1268/9) m Joan, daughter of Sir William de Cantelou (by Eve, daughter and co-heir of William de Braose, Lord of Abergavenny), and had issue;
Sir John de Hastings (b. 1262 d. about 1312/3), 1st Lord Hastings, Competitor for the Crown of Scotland in 1290, m, secondly, Isabel, daughter of Hugh Le Despencer, Earl of Winchester (by Isabel, daughter of William de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick), and had issue;
Sir Hugh de Hastings (d. 1369) m Margaret, daughter of Adam de Everingham and had issue;
Hugh de Hastings (d. 1386) m Anne (d. 1426), daughter of Edward Le Despencer, Lord Le Despencer and had issue;
Sir Edward Hastings (bap. 21 May 1382), de jure 8th Lord Hastings, m Muriel de Dinham of Hartland, Devon and had issue;
John Hastings (b. before 6 Jan 1411 d. 9 Apr 1477) of Gressenhall m Anne Morley (d. 1471), daughter of Thomas Morley, Lord Morley (b. bef. 1393 d. 1435) and Isabel de la Pole (d. 1466), daughter of Michael de la Pole (d. 1415), Earl of Suffolk (by Catherine, daughter of Hugh de Stafford, Earl of Stafford), and had issue;
Elizabeth Hastings m Sir Robert Hildyard of Winestead-in-Holderness (b about 1435) and had issue:
Katherine Hildyard (d bef 5/4/1540) m William Girlington of Frodingham, Lincolnshire, and had issue:
Isabel Girlington (living 3/4/1519) m Christopher Kelke of Barnetby, Lincolnshire, (d 2/2/1523), son of Roger Kelke of Barnetby and Elizabeth de la See* and had issue:
William Kelke, merchant of London m Thomasine Skerne, daughter of Percival Skerne, and had issue:
Cecily Kelke (b. 1552) m (Aug 1574) John Farrar of Ewood (d. 1627/8) and had issue;
John Farrar of Ewood** (b. 1578) m, secondly, Susan Waterhouse and had issue;
William Farrar of Ewood (d. 8 Oct 1684) m Frances (or Thomasin***), daughter of Richard James of Portsmouth, and had issue;
Frances Farrar m James Greenwood of Stapleton (d. 1712).
*See 'Lincolnshire Pedigrees' (London, 1903), p. 555, for a pedigree of the Kelke of Barnetby family. On p. 556 Roger Kelke of Barnetby marries Elizabeth, daughter of Martin de la See (who was knighted after the seige of Edrington Castle in 1482) by Elizabeth, daughter of Philip Wentworth by Mary de Clifford, daughter of John de Clifford, 7th Baron Clifford by Elizabeth Percy, daughter of Henry 'Hotspur' Percy by Elizabeth Mortimer, daughter of Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, by Philippa Plantagenet, Countess of Ulster and of March, daughter of Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, son of Edward III by Philippa of Hainault.
**In 1609 he was confirmed arms of argent on a bend engrailed sable three horse-shoes of the field and for the crest on a wreath of the colours a horse-shoe argent between two wings or ('The Descent of Dr. Lillian K. Farrar, M.D.,' Chester Herald, College of Arms, London, in Library of Congress).
***Biographia Halifaxiensis, p. 217.
Descent from Edward I:
Edward I, King of England (d. 1307) m Eleanor of Castile and had issue;
Joan Plantagenet m Gilbert de Clare, 3rd Earl of Gloucester, 7th Earl of Hertford and had issue;
Margaret de Clare m Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester, and had issue;
Margaret de Audley m Ralph Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford, and had issue;
Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford m Philippa Beauchamp and had issue;
Catherine Stafford m Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, and had issue;
Isabel de la Pole m Thomas Morley, 5th Baron Morley, and had issue;
Anne Morley (d. 1471) - see above.
Ewood Hall, Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire.
Ewood Hall, Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire.
The property was formerly owned by the Okes family, but in 1471 Ewood and its lands were conveyed by the owner Edmund Pylkington to Henry Ferror, or Farrar. It was he, with his brothers John and Hugh, who gave two acres of land at Skircoat for the building of Heath Grammar School, and he obtained at his own expense the charter for the foundation of the school. He was murdered at Westminster in 1610. In 1798 Dr John Fawcett and his two sons came to Ewood from Upper Brearley Hall to open their academy for Baptist ministers which continued until 1835. Near the front door is a stone bearing the date 1656 and the initials J.M.L. (presumably John Lockwood.) The building was demolished in the early 1970s. Ewood Hall Barn, the former stables to the Hall, is still standing and has been partly converted to residential use. It is a Grade II Listed Building.
Mytholmroyd - birthplace of Ted Hughes (1930-1998), Poet Laureate.
Harrington of Lavenham
Anne Harrington (1717-1813)
Ann(e) Harrington of Lavenham (b 1717), who married Rev. Francis Greenwood (d 15 June 1761) (above), was the daughter of Joseph Harrington (1694-1758) of Lavenham, and Ann Jowers (d 1762). Joseph Harrington was the son of Thomas Harrington of Lavenham (will dated 6 Aug 1719, proved 5 May 1720, d 1720), grocer, by his wife, Mary (d 1711), as stated below.
The arms of Harrington of Essex per Burke's 'General Armory' - sable a fret or.
Arms of Harrington of Sible Hedingham and Harrington of Great Maplestead per The Visitation of Essex (1634 and 1664) - 'Sable, a fret argent charged with nine fleur-de-lis gules'
The Visitation of Essex of 1664 by Sir Edward Bysshe includes two Harrington families; the first of Sible Hedingham and the second of Great Maplestead. These bore the arms 'Sable, a fret argent charged with nine fleur-de-lis gules', with due differences, clearly a differenced version of the arms of Harington of Exton (see below).
A John Harrington of Lavenham died (or will proved or dated) on 3 Nov 1737 and his will mentions his son John, his wife Elizabeth and his daughter Elizabeth, as well as freehold land in Sible Hedingham. Thus we have a connection between Harringtons living in Lavenham and land in Sible Hedingham but it has not yet been established that this John Harrington was related to the family of the Ann(e) Harrington who married Charles Greenwood or that he was a member of the armigerous family of Sible Hedingham. Perhaps this John Harrington was the brother of:
Thomas Harrington of Lavenham, grocer (will dated 6 Aug 1719, proved 5 May 1720, d 1720), married Mary, d 1711, and had issue:
1). Mary b 1675
2). Elizabeth b 1677 married William Southgate 1698
3). Thomas b 1679
4). William b 1681
5). Margaret b 1681
6). Joseph b 1694, d 1758
7). James b 1696, d 1729, married Martha Jowers, d 1760
8). Charles b 1700
9). John died 1711
Joseph (above) married, firstly, in 1714 Bridget Boxwell, d 1715, and had issue:
1). Bridget b 1715
Joseph married, secondly, about 1716 in Shimplingthorne, Suffolk, Ann Jowers, died 1762, of Cockfield, and had children:
1). Ann b 1717 married .... Greenwood
2). Joseph b 1718
3). John b 1720, d before 1726
4). James b 1722 (had son William Goodwin H)
5). Thomas b 1724, d 1763
6). John b 1726, d 1746
7). Martha b 1729 unm
8). Sarah b 1731
9). Mary died 1734
10). Charles b 1733, d 1734
11). Elizabeth b 1737
12). Mary b 1739
13). Charles b 1740
14). William b 1742.
See here for further sources concerning the Harrington family in Suffolk and Essex.
Arms depicted on memorial slab of Joseph Harrington (d. 1758), father of Ann(e) Harrington (b. 1717), in the church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Lavenham. These are clearly intended to be the arms of Harrington of Exton or a differenced version thereof (although the crest is incorrect and should be a lion's head - not affronte and therefore sideways on - erased or, gorged gules, charged with two fleur de lys of the second, assuming that the arms are intended to be those of Harrington of Sible Hedingham or Harrington of Great Maplestead).
'A Dictionary of Suffolk Crests', Suffolk Record Society, (p. 274) records the a crest as a leopard's head. The Visitation of Essex (1634 and 1664) records that the crest of the Harringtons of Sible Hedingham and of Great Maplestead was a lion's head (erased or, gorged gules, charged with two fleur de lys of the second).
Arthur Youngs 'Travels in France during the Years 1787, 1788, 1789' (ed. Miss Betham-Edwards, London, George Bell and Sons, 1909) states "What commanded more of my attention," he writes, "was a branch of learning very different from Greek: it was the lessons I received from a dancing-master, who came over once a week from Colchester to teach the boys, and also some young ladies. Two of these in succession made terrible havoc with my heart. The first was a Miss Betsey Harrington, a Lavenham grocer's daughter, who was admitted by all who saw her to be truly beautiful." This is probably Elizabeth Harrington (b 1737), sister of Ann(e) Harrington (above), but she must have been a close relation in any event.
Harrington of Sible Hedingham and Harrington of Great Maplestead
Wallace's Farm, Great Maplestead
The Harrington family appear to have been landowners in Essex, according to Morant's 'The History and Antiquities of the County of Essex', which, among other entries, records (vol. II, p. 279-280) that at Great Maplestead (Hinckford Hundred), the 'farm of some note here' called Walasses or Waleiss (which now appears to be deserted) was in the possession of Edmund Harrington* in 1578 (Is this Wallace's Farm, about a mile South-West of Great Maplestead, near Dyne's Hall?) and that 'this person was descended from a younger branch of the noble family of Harrington, Barons of Exton, in the county of Rutland'. In addition, Burke's 'General Armory' records that Harrington of Essex bore arms of sable a fret or, a differenced version of the arms of Harington, Barons of Exton (extinct 1614), namely sable a fret argent. Great Maplestead, Essex, is about 11 miles from Lavenham, Suffolk.
*Two Edmund Harringtons, father and son, are shown in the Visitation of 1634, the elder being of the Sible Hedingham family and the third son of the elder Edmund, named William, being the progenitor of the Great Maplestead family.
Harington of Exton
Arms of Harington of Exton
Exton Old Hall, Exton, Rutland (now a ruin)
The Haringtons of Exton were descended from Sir Robert de Harington (son of Sir John de Harington, 1st Lord Harington) and his wife, Elizabeth de Multon, sister and co-heir of John de Multon (d 1334), 2nd Baron Multon of Egremont, descended from Lambert de Multon (d 1247) and his wife, Annabel de Lucy, daughter and co-heir of Richard de Lucy, descended from Reginald de Lucy (ancestor of the Barons Lucy) and Annabel FitzDuncan, daughter and co-heir of William FitzDuncan, Earl of Murray, son of Duncan II (b about 1060 d 1094), King of Scots. William FitzDuncan was the grandson of Gospatric I, Earl of Northumberland (b. About 1040 d. 1074), whose mother, Ealdgyth, was the grand-daughter of Ethelred the Unready (978-1016), King of England. Elizabeth de Multon was also descended from Charlemagne (b. 2 Apr 747 d. 28 Jan 813), Holy Roman Emperor, via the wife of William FitzDuncan, that is Alice de Meschines, daughter of Ranulf de Meschines, Earl of Chester (b. About 1070 d. 1129). Assuming that the Suffolk Harringtons were a branch of the Essex Harringtons, it would appear that the beautiful 'Lavenham grocer's daughter' was in fact 'the daughter of a hundred belted earls', as the saying goes, including the following:
Descent of Elizabeth de Multon from Hamelin Plantagenet, Earl of Surrey, natural son of Geoffrey, Count of Anjou (b. 24 Aug 1113 d. 7 Sep 1151):
Hamelin Plantagenet, Earl of Surrey (d. 7 May 1202) m Isabel de Warenne (d. 13 Jul 1199), daughter of William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey (b. About 1110 d. 19 Jan 1148), and had issue;
Isabel de Warenne (b. About 1152) m Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk (b. About 1148 d. Before 6 Mar 1176), and had issue;
Hugh Bigod, Earl of Norfolk (b. About 1175 d. About 1224/1225) m Maud Marshall (b. About 1192 d. 27 Mar 1248), daughter of William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke (b. 1146 d. 14 May 1219), and had issue;
Isabel Bigod (b. About 1210) m Sir John FitzGeoffrey (d. 23 Nov 1258) and had issue;
Avelina FitzJohn (d. About 20 May 1274) m Walter de Burgh, Earl of Ulster (b. About 1230 d. 28 Jul 1271) and had issue;
Richard de Burgh, Earl of Ulster (d. 29 Jul 1326) m Margaret (d. 1304) and had issue;
Eleanor de Burgh m Thomas de Multon, 1st Baron Multon of Egremont (b. 21 Feb 1276 d. Before 8 Feb 1321) and had issue;
Elizabeth de Multon (b. 1306)
The following is from 'Greenwood Genealogies' 1154-1914 by Frederick Greenwood, East Templeton, MA (1914):
'Ralph Thoresby in his history of Leeds, Eng., and the West Outriding of Yorkshire, published 1715, and Whitaker in an edition of Leeds, published 1816, both refer to a place known as New Laithes as famous for its long Greenwood occupancy. Thoresby says of New Laithes: "Here for many years resided the very ancient family of Greenwood descended from Wyomarus, who flourished ano. 1154, cater to Mawd the Empress." This New Laithes is the small village 5 miles north-west of Leeds [now a suburb of Leeds], near the river Aire in the township of Newlay. New Laithes hall, or manor house, is yet standing, but no Greenwoods or their descendants are now living there. New Laithes hall came into possession of the Greenwoods as early as 1180 and was occupied by a Charles Greenwood as late as 1816*. On Apr. 13, 1670, the estate was sold by a James Greenwood to Thomas Lord Viscount Savile, Earl of Sussex, but the estate was repurchased by a Joseph Greenwood, who died there in 1728.'
*This is presumably Charles Greenwood (1748-1832), who, according to my family notes, purchased the estate in 1824 from Mr. Spencer Stanhope. It was sold on his death in 1832. He seems to have been the last Greenwood to have owned the estate.
New Laithes on an old map. Click here for a modern location map. The river shown is the Aire. The railway can also be seen. As far as I can see from aerial photos, the building (or part of it) still exists.
'Mr. and Mrs. Andrews' by Gainsborough (1748-9). The landscape shown is that of Robert Andrews' estate, The Auberies, Bulmer, nr. Sudbury, Essex, (now with a postcode of CO10 7DY), later the home of Charles Greenwood. Robert Andrews died in 1806 (monument in St. Andrew's Church, Bulmer) and the house (see below) was then rebuilt. In 1835 a three-storey addition was built for a Col. Augustus Meyrick. On this basis it seems likely that Charles Greenwood owned the property from 1806 to 1832, when he died, and that the property was bought by Col. Meyrick in that year or shortly afterwards.
The Auberies in the time of Robert Andrews from an 18th century print. The house is between Bulmer and the A131 leading into Sudbury.
Under the Greenwood Tree
'Under the Greenwood Tree' - The view from Greenwood Lee looking towards Hardcastle Crags and High Greenwood. This must be the original greenwood from which the family took their name.
Another view of the valley - near Hardcastle Crags.
Under the greenwood tree - in the valley.
In the greenwood.
In the greenwood.
As You Like It, Act II, Scene 5
Scene: The Forest of Arden
Under the Greenwood Tree - an interpretation by Julius Kronberg (1850-1921)
Jagdnymphe mit Faunen, 1875, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.
For some reason I quite like this interpretation.
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